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Foundation Types

Slab Foundation: An Overview

A slab foundation is a single, thick layer of concrete that is laid across the entire building area. It is often used in regions with warm climates, where the ground does not freeze and cause the foundation to crack.

It is important to note that like any other foundation type, they have their unique characteristics that can be beneficial or detrimental depending on the situation.

Pros of Slab Foundation

Firstly, slab foundations are generally less expensive to install than other types of foundations because they require less material and labor. This is a significant advantage for homeowners looking to reduce construction costs.

Secondly, slab foundations require less maintenance over time. There’s no need to worry about pests, such as termites or rodents, infiltrating from the ground, as the concrete slab acts as a barrier. This can result in substantial long-term savings.

Cons of a Slab Foundation

However, slab foundations are not without their drawbacks. One of the main disadvantages is that they offer no storage or utility space, unlike crawl space or basement foundations. Furthermore, any plumbing or electrical work that needs to be done post-construction can be challenging and costly, as these installations often run beneath the slab.

In conclusion, while slab foundations can be a cost-effective and low-maintenance option, homeowners should carefully consider their specific needs and circumstances before making a decision.

Crawl Space Foundation

A crawl space foundation, as the name suggests, is a type of foundation that creates a small, accessible space between the ground and the bottom of the home. While not as common as slab foundations, they’re particularly useful in certain climates and situations.

Types of Crawl Space Foundations

Crawl space foundations can be categorized into three primary types based on the materials used and their construction methods:

  1. Concrete Block Crawl Space: This type of foundation is constructed using concrete blocks. It’s commonly used because of its relative affordability and strength. Concrete block crawl spaces are resistant to fire and provide good insulation.
  2. Poured Concrete Crawl Space: As the name suggests, this foundation involves pouring concrete into a frame to create the walls of the crawl space. Poured concrete foundations are typically stronger and more watertight than concrete block foundations. However, they can be more expensive to install.
  3. Pier and Beam Crawl Space: This type uses concrete or metal piers driven into the ground, onto which beams or floor joists are placed. While this method can be more time-consuming and requires more skill to construct, it offers excellent stability and is particularly suited to sloped sites.

Pros of Crawl Space Foundations

One of the significant advantages of using a crawl space foundation is that it provides easy access to utilities. Plumbing, electrical wiring, and HVAC systems can be located here, making repairs and upgrades much easier and less expensive than they would be with a slab foundation.

Secondly, crawl space foundations can be beneficial in damp or flood-prone areas. They lift the house off the ground, providing an extra layer of protection against water damage. Moreover, this type of foundation is less susceptible to termite damage as compared to a wood-based foundation, which is another plus point.

Cons of Crawl Space Foundations

On the other hand, crawl space foundations do come with a set of drawbacks. They can be a breeding ground for moisture and mold if not properly ventilated, which can lead to air quality issues within the home. This can also lead to wood rot and structural damage over time.

Additionally, crawl space foundations can be more expensive to install than slab foundations. They require more labor and materials, leading to higher initial costs.

A crawl space foundation offers certain advantages such as accessibility and protection against moisture, but also needs careful maintenance to avoid potential drawbacks. Therefore, homeowners should consider their specific needs, budget, and location before deciding on the type of foundation for their home.

Full Basement Foundation

Full basements are another popular choice for home foundations, especially in areas where the frost line depth is significant. Basements not only provide additional living or storage space but also offer easy access to utilities.

Materials Used

  1. Concrete: Most basement foundations are made from poured concrete due to its strength and durability. Poured concrete basement foundations are robust, waterproof, and resistant to fire and pests. However, if not installed correctly, concrete can crack and let moisture seep in, leading to potential structural issues.
  2. Concrete Block: Concrete blocks, or cinder blocks, are another material used in basement construction. They are more cost-effective than poured concrete but are less resistant to water and not as strong.
  3. Preserved Wood: In some cases, preserved wood is used to construct basement foundations, especially for temporary structures. While wood is cheaper and easier to install, it is more susceptible to pests and decay, and does not offer the same level of durability as concrete.

Pros and Cons


  • Space: Basements provide extra square footage that can be converted into living space, storage or even a rental suite.
  • Access to Utilities: Utilities are easily accessible in a basement, making repairs and upgrades more convenient.
  • Temperature Control: Basements stay cool in the summer and warm in the winter, helping with energy efficiency.


  • Cost: Basements can be expensive to build and finish, especially when compared to other types of foundations.
  • Moisture Issues: If not correctly waterproofed, basements can be prone to dampness and potential flooding.
  • Limited Use in Certain Areas: In regions with high water tables or unstable soil, constructing a basement may not be an option.

Foundation and Moisture

The Importance of Keeping Moisture Away from Different Types of Foundations

A building’s foundation is its bedrock; it provides the necessary support to the entire structure. Various types of foundations are employed in construction, such as slab foundations, crawl space foundations, and full basement foundations, each with their unique characteristics and applications.

A slab foundation, as the name suggests, is a single layer of concrete, several inches thick, spread across the entire building area. Crawl space foundations are raised off the ground and provide a space between the soil and the bottom of the home. Full basement foundations are essentially reinforced basements that can be used as living or storage spaces.

Regardless of the type, one universal concern about foundations is the potential harm caused by moisture. Excessive moisture can lead to numerous problems, from mold and mildew growth to serious structural damage. It can compromise the strength of the foundation, leading to cracks and even foundation failure in severe cases. Therefore, it’s crucial to maintain dry conditions around the foundation, employing measures such as proper grading, the installation of drain systems, and the use of moisture barriers. By keeping moisture at bay, homeowners can ensure the longevity and integrity of their home’s foundations.